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|Title: ||Възникване и развитие на художествените музеи|
|Other Titles: ||The Rise and Development of Art Museums|
|Authors: ||Недков, Симеон|
|Keywords: ||музеи история|
|Issue Date: ||2012|
|Publisher: ||СУ "Св. Климент Охридски"|
|Citation: ||Недков, Симеон. Възникване и развитие на художествените музеи. // Год. СУ Св. Климент Охридски, Филос. фак., Кн. Библ.-информ. науки, Т. 4. София, 2012, с. 61-99. <http://hdl.handle.net/10506/753>.|
|Abstract: ||Most of the people associate the term „museum“ with the Louvre, the Hermitage, the Prado, i.e. art museums. This seems to be so natural because the mentioned museums are emblematic for the museum work all over the world. The brilliant exhibitions of these „temples“ of art annually attract millions of visitors from near and far. In front of museum visitors are revealed the artistic achievements of the human civilization from ancient times till modernity. Thus the art museums continue to be schools of humanism and aestheticism. The numerous experts in these museums: curators, restorers, conservators, researchers provide systematic care for the protection, preservation and exhibition of the movable cultural heritage worldwide.
The study is chronological history of the emergence and development of the major art museums in Europe. The term „muzeyon“ originates from ancient Greece. The first antique museum is created in the famous library of Alexandria. It was known in antiquity as „muzeyon“ and was the first purposely built antique museum. By this time there were some beginnings of museum activity. It was in Ancient Greece where the first art galleries known as the Pinacotec and sculpture collections - Gliptotek.
During the Italian Renaissance emerged and gradually formed a new cultural institution - the art museum, which acquired popularity of the unique Italian name - gallery. Florence is the city that creates the most favorable conditions for the flourishing of Italian Renaissance. There occurred the world-famous galleries Uffizi and Pitti.
Until German unification in 1870, it is divided into small independent states. Their rulers are seeking to emulate the kings of European empires and create rich art collections located in special rooms for this purpose called in German - Kunstkamera.
These cabinets of art are most widespread in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They do not differ from the Italian galleries. They kept mostly private collections of paintings and sculptures, as well as some examples of applied arts. The Kunstkamera was widely spread among the various German states and in neighboring countries. Following this model, Peter the Great created his famous Kunstkamera in St. Petersburg.
The absolutist monarchies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are among the traditional patrons of artists. The nobility collections are filled with orders, purchases, and often through conquest wars, the most striking evidence of this is the Napoleonic wars. Gradually they grew into the largest art museums in the world.
The Louvre is a result of the French Revolution. By decision of the Covenant the largest art museum is opened to all citizens of the French Republic. Different is the history of the emergence of the largest museum in Russia - the Hermitage. Another museum that is created on the basis of regal collections in Russia is the Armory Chamber. Similar is the story of emergence of the Prado Museum. It is created on the basis of the Spanish royal collections in 1819. The Habsburg dynasty (Austrian branch) is the longest ruling in Europe - whole 693 years. These collections are the basis for the History and Art Museum in Vienna.
By the late nineteenth century the largest and richest art museums in Europe and worldwide were created. Their story is the story of conservation, preservation and presentation of the greatest achievements of human civilization in the arts. The digitization of works of art is the modern way for their documentation and preservation. Publication in virtual museums on the World Wide Web helps for further promotion, especially among young people. Thus the art museums have become more popular in the virtual world. By most valuable and attractive exhibits they attend many websites as emblems of art museums.|
|Appears in Collections:||Книга Библиотечно-информационни науки / Livre des Sciences de l’information et des bibliothèques|
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